Sociology, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



J Fam Issues. 2012 July 27; 33(9): 1272–1293.


© The Author(s) 2012. Published by SAGE Publications.


This research utilizes life-course perspective concepts of linked lives and historical time and place to examine the multigenerational effects of relocation experiences on Indigenous families. Data were collected from a longitudinal study currently underway on four American Indian reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves where residents share a common Indigenous cultural heritage. This paper includes information from 507 10 – 12 year old Indigenous youth and their biological mothers who participated in the study. Results of path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect effects whereby grandparent-generation (G1) participation in government relocation programs negatively impacts not only G1 well being, but also ripples out to affect subsequent generations.