Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders


Date of this Version



Published in 76:1 (2009), pp. 7-30. Copyright 2009 Council for Exceptional Children. Used by permission. “Reproduced with permission, copyright © 2009 by the CEC, Inc. . All rights reserved.”


Within 3-tier behavioral models, universal interventions are expected to prevent the onset of problem behavior in a majority of children altogether and to sustain improvements in child outcomes by the selected and indicated interventions. A cohort longitudinal design was used to assess the extent to which a 3-tier model achieves these expected outcomes. The respective universal, selected, and indicated interventions included Behavior and Academic Support and Enhancement. First Step to Success, and MultiSystemic Therapy. A total of 407 children in Grades K-3 from 1 of 4 longitudinal cohorts participated. The results of 2-level linear growth analyses indicate that the 3-tier behavior model achieved the anticipated outcomes with respect to social behavior. The results, limitations, and implications are discussed.