Statistics, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



Cells 2019, 8, 1631


© 2019 by the authors.

Open access



Background: The Golgi apparatus undergoes disorganization in response to stress, but it is able to restore compact and perinuclear structure under recovery. This self-organization mechanism is significant for cellular homeostasis, but remains mostly elusive, as does the role of giantin, the largest Golgi matrix dimeric protein. Methods: In HeLa and different prostate cancer cells, we used the model of cellular stress induced by Brefeldin A (BFA). The conformational structure of giantin was assessed by proximity ligation assay and atomic force microscopy. The post-BFA distribution of Golgi resident enzymes was examined by 3D SIM high-resolution microscopy. Results: We detected that giantin is rather flexible than an extended coiled-coil dimer and BFA-induced Golgi disassembly was associated with giantin monomerization. A fusion of the nascent Golgi membranes after BFA washout is forced by giantin re-dimerization via disulfide bond in its luminal domain and assisted by Rab6a GTPase. GM130-GRASP65-dependent enzymes are able to reach the nascent Golgi membranes, while giantin-sensitive enzymes appeared at the Golgi after its complete recovery via direct interaction of their cytoplasmic tail with N-terminus of giantin. Conclusion: Post-stress recovery of Golgi is conducted by giantin dimer and Golgi proteins refill membranes according to their docking affiliation rather than their intra-Golgi location.