Business, College of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Decision Support Systems 161 (2022) 113847.


Used by permission.


The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the goals and functions of technology-based systems around the world [16]. From a health perspective, the World Health Organization has reported that over six million have died of the disease. Government efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 have had drastic impact on global supply chains. The world’s health systems have been heavily taxed. Travel is difficult anywhere, and more difficult internationally. Economies are still in downturns [13], as many workers have been taken out of the economy for indefinite periods of time, and the structure of work has radically changed, with many working remotely [11]. This in turn has led to vacant offices, as well as a migration from inner cities to suburbs in some countries. The impacts to society and human quality of life have been severe [3].