Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education


Date of this Version



Published in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition, 2015, pp. 327–33


Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Used by permission.


Foreign language teaching and learning have changed from teacher-centered to learner/learning-centered environments. Relying on language theories, research findings, and experiences, educators developed teaching strategies and learning environments that engaged learners in interactive communicative language tasks. A shift in foreign language pedagogy from a specific foreign language method to the measurement of language performance/competency has resulted in a change in the role of the teacher from one of authority/expert to that of facilitator/guide and agent of change. Current developments point to public pedagogy, social media, and action research as additional ways to foster intercultural competence and language learning.