Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education


Date of this Version

Fall 2023


Journal of Language & Literacy Education 19:2 (Fall 2023), pp. 1-28.


Copyright © 2023 Journal of Language & Literacy Education. Used by permission.


In the Bilingual Literacy Development Model: A holistic way to support Spanish-speaking children research study, I studied bilingual families over a 5-month period in their home environments through home visits. Drawing from data obtained through home visits, including interviews with mothers and observations of family literacy practices in the home environment, this study examines children’s bilingual literacy development. The findings are presented in an adapted Bilingual Literacy Development Model I created. The model was adapted from the work of researchers Leseman and de Jong (1998) and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system (1977, 1995), from which four facets were developed: literacy and language opportunities, constructional practices, literacy interactions, and socioemotional quality of practices. Each of these facets are viewed from the lens of child, family, and society (the school or community) with specific activities identified that help to make a holistic bilingual child.