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Among the more important questions addressed by students of earth history are those that relate to climatic change. This is especially true of change that has taken place during the last two million years of the "Ice Age." It is not an accident that a great deal of effort has been directed towards the Late Pleistocene, and our knowledge of Late Pleistocene environmental parameters has increased markedly in the past few years. However, our knowledge of these changes is still incomplete, and we still have some uncertainty about the cause and nature of Late Pleistocene climatic change, its possible relationship to large mammal extinction, and the establishment of the modern distribution of fauna and flora in North America. Natural Trap Cave in the Big Horn Basin gives us an excellent opportunity to examine a record of these events extending from Late Pleistocene to Recent times.