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Genetic variation within and among wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, subspecies was measured using DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis of a 655 bp portion of the mtDNA D-loop region. DNA sequencing from 25 individual Eastern, Merriam, Rio Grande and domestic Turkeys revealed 16 polymorphic sites. Parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis did not show support for the four wild Turkey subspecies studied. PCR-RFLP analysis of 118 individuals revealed 13 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype variation was detected in all wild Turkey populations, and Wright's F-statistics revealed pronounced differentiation (FST = 0.302) among populations. Based on these data, non-native wild Turkey populations do not appear to have suffered a genetic bottleneck since their reintroduction.