Psychology, Department of


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Holt, N. R., Ralston, A. L., Hope, D. A., Mocarski, R., & Woodruff, N. (2021). A systematic review of recommendations for behavioral health services with transgender and gender diverse adults: The three-legged stool of evidence-based practice is unbalanced. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice.

Author manuscript; available in PMC 2022 June 01. Published in final edited form as: Clin Psychol (New York). 2021 June ; 28(2): 186–201.


There is a growing literature of clinical recommendations for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) affirming behavioral health care, yet it is unknown to what extent these recommendations are rooted in evidence-based practice (EBP). This systematic review included 65 articles published between 2009 and 2018 with recommendations for behavioral health services with TGD adults, emphasizing general clinical care. Coded variables included type of article, participant demographics, aspects of EBP, and whether care was informed by objective assessment. Most articles did not equally draw from all components of EBP. Recommendations for specific clinical problems are increasingly available and address diversity within TGD communities. More research, including clinical trials adapting established interventions, is needed to inform state-of-the-art TGD-affirmative behavioral health care.