Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version


Document Type



Published in Sexuality Research and Social Policy (2021)



Copyright © 2021 by the authors; published by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Used by permission.


Introduction Despite increased attention to transgender and gender diverse (TGD) issues in psychological literature during the past decade, gaps remain for psychometric validation of TGD-specific measures. Kozee et al. (Psychology of Women Quarterly 36(2):179–196, 2012) addressed such gaps by creating the Transgender Congruence Scale (TCS), measuring gender acceptance and feelings of gender congruence between internal and external attributes across a broad range of gender identities. The current study extended Kozee and colleagues’ work by further examining the psychometric properties of the TCS.

Methods Between October and November of 2017, 210 transmasculine, transfeminine, and gender diverse adults between ages 19 and 73 completed online surveys containing demographic, gender identity-specific, and well-being measures including the TCS.

Results Results of confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original two-factor model (Appearance Congruence and Gender Identity Acceptance), with the elimination of two poorly loading items, resulting in a 10-item reduced model (TCS-10). Higher scores on TCS-10 were associated with positive scores on gender-related well-being, congruence, and pride, positive affect, and life satisfaction, as well as lower scores on gender-related dysphoria, non-affirmation, internalized transphobia, and marginalization. There were modest but significant associations between Gender Identity Congruence and both depression and negative affect.

Conclusions Despite limitations of sample size and diversity of identities, the study reaffirmed the utility of the TCS as an overall construct of gender identity congruence with a 10-item reduced structure related to other established TGD constructs.

Policy Implications Though socio-political climate is the ultimate domain for alleviating TGD stigma and discrimination, factors such as gender congruence are essential areas of focus to foster resiliency.