U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Published by the Midwest Archeological Center (1994), 1-52


This report provides an overview of the archeological resources (prehistoric and
historic) of the various designated units and study areas associated with the Niobrara/Missouri National Scenic Riverways (NIMI) (Figure 1). The purpose of the overview is to pull together information pertinent to archeological resources that has been disseminated in the reports of the numerous projects that have taken place in the study area over the last century. This compilation of the data is necessary to address the current and future management and research needs of the riverway.

A large number of archeological field projects have been conducted in the study area, mostly in response to development activities such as a reservoir construction, highway improvements or utility facilities. As a result of the larger reservoir projects and the 1978 Missouri National Recreational River designation several overviews were written to summarize the extent of our knowledge of the archeological data for those areas (Adamczyk 1975; Hanenberger 1980; Helgevold 1980; Ludwickson et al. 1981; Blakeslee and O'Shea 1983; Pepperl and Falk 1983; Falk et al. 1985). Several overviews from adjacent areas also exist (Benn 1986). This overview draws on these previous summaries, bringing together information from smaller areas or shorter time depths to cover the entire area of NIMI. However, this report also summarizes the results of file searches and data analysis conducted for the study area.

The following sets of information are provided in this report. 1) A discussion of the procedures used in completing this report. 2) A chronological listing of each known archeological project conducted within the NIMI study area. 3) A summary of the spatial and temporal character of the archeology of the region (e.g., culture chronology). 4) A summary of the nature of the archeological remains found within the study area. 5) A list of important research questions/recommendations which should help guide determinations of significance for the resources, future archeological investigations, and current and future management.

It is important to note that this overview does not attempt to include extensive information concerning either ethnographic or historic cultural resources in the area other than those that have been documented archeologically. The ethnographic and historic aspects of the study area have been documented in other reports (see Franklin et al. 1994; Ritter et al. n.d.).