U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Methods 40 (2006) 86–97


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


This review provides an overview of studies employing particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED) or the gene gun to administer DNA vaccines for infectious diseases in preclinical studies employing large animal models and in human clinical trials. It reviews the immunogenicity and protective eYcacy of PMED DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates and swine and studies that have directly compared the eVectiveness of PMED in these large animal models to existing licensed vaccines and intramuscular or intradermal delivery of DNA vaccines with a needle. Various clinical trials employing PMED have been completed and an overview of the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of this approach in humans is described. Finally, eVorts currently in progress for commercial development of particle-mediated DNA vaccines are discussed. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.