U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Vaccine 25 (2007) 7017–7030


U.S. Government Work


U.S. military physicians and researchers have collaborated in the development of eight U.S.-licensed vaccines since 1934, when product efficacy requirements were added to product safety requirements mandated in 1902. These vaccines include influenza (1945), rubella (1969), adenovirus types 4 and 7 (1980), meningococcus A, C, Y,W-135 (1981), hepatitis B (1981), oral typhoid (1989), Japanese encephalitis (1992), and hepatitis A(1995). Current efforts include newadenovirus and Japanese encephalitis vaccines, and vaccines to prevent dengue, diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Shigella, malaria, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, scrub typhus, meningococcus type B, and HIV infection. All vaccines currently administered to U.S. military forces must be licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).