U.S. Department of Defense


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Offshore oil exploration and production operators in high latitude regions recognize icing as a seasonal challenge. Icing is often accepted as an inconvenience, but that tolerance can rapidly become a safety hazard that requires solutions. This report evaluates the superstructure and atmospheric icing hazard on offshore platforms and supply boats with location and operation on the structure. It also explains the potential impact of icing on these locations and operations by icing type: sea spray, snow, glaze, rime, frost, and sleet. Fourteen ice protection technology categories are identified for anti-icing, deicing, and ice detection. These technologies include chemicals, icephobic coatings, structure design, expulsive techniques, heat, high-volume water, air and steam, infrared energy, manual deicing, piezoelectric methods, pneumatic boots, vibration and covers, and as separate categories windows, cables, and ice detection methods. Each technology category is described with regard to products available, current use, engineering design, technology readiness levels, capability at the current level of development for the marine environment, possible use in the marine environment to improve safety, and indications of development necessary to transfer the technology to offshore use. Examples of technology sources are also provided. Suggestions are made with regard to the application of technologies to solve icing safety threats on platforms and supply boats. Technology readiness levels are also summarized. The goal is to provide a technology resource for offshore oil and production operators with icing-related safety requirements.