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The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The polymorphism maps to an autosomal locus with codominant Mendelian inheritance. DNA sequence analyses of the Asian and North American forms enabled development of locus-specific primers so that this marker, designated FS-1, will be useful for strain identification under varying conditions in different laboratories.