U.S. Department of Agriculture: Forest Service -- National Agroforestry Center


Date of this Version



New Forests (2013) DOI 10.1007/s11056-013-9377-5


Few pine species develop a seedling grass stage; this growth phase, characterized by strong, carrot-like taproots and a stem-less nature, poses unique challenges during nursery production. Fertilization levels beyond optimum could result in excessive diameter growth that reduces seedling quality as measured by the root bound index (RBI). We grew longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), a grass stage species, in containers of four different volumes (60–336 ml) either coated with copper oxychloride or left untreated and fertilized at low, medium, or high levels of nitrogen (N). In general, N concentration of tissues rose as N rate increased, with larger changes in concentration occurring between low and medium levels than between medium and high levels. N rate influenced root tissue N concentration less than it did stems and needles. Subtle needle color differences caused by N rate were significant, suggesting its potential utility during nursery production. As expected, seedlings grew larger as container volume increased and as N rate increased. Copper treatment, which we posited could influence the RBI, tended to increase root-collar diameter and tap root biomass and decrease total root volume. Chlorophyll abundance was affected more by N rate than by container volume or copper treatment, but photosynthesis was affected more by copper treatment than N rate or container size. Although RBI was 25 % greater for seedlings grown in small containers with high N rates than those grown in large containers with low N rates, RBI ranged only from 11 to 15 %, well below the critical 27 % threshold.