U.S. Department of Agriculture: Forest Service -- National Agroforestry Center


Date of this Version



Richard J. Hauer, Jeffrey O. Dawson, and Les P. Werner. 2006. Trees and Ice Storms: The Development of Ice Storm-Resistant Urban Tree Populations, Second Edition. Joint Publication 06-1, College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, and the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences and the Office of Continuing Education, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. 20pp.


Severe ice storms occur every year in the United States and Canada, particularly in the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States. Along with fires and wind, ice storms are a frequent and major natural disturbance factor in eastern deciduous forests. Likewise ice storms are responsible for deaths and injuries of people and cause dramatic damage and tree loss to urban forests. Ice storms annually result in millions of dollars in loss, and potentially billions of dollars in losses for extreme and widespread ice storms. Damage to electric distribution systems, blocked roadways, and property damage from fallen trees and limbs pose safety concerns and disrupt normal community functions. Tree species vary in their resistance to ice accumulation. Certain characteristics, such as weak branch junctures indicated by included bark, dead and decaying branches, a broad crown, and fine branching, increase a tree’s susceptibility to ice storm damage. Planting a diverse urban forest that includes trees resistant to ice storms and performing regular tree maintenance to avoid or remove structural weaknesses will reduce damage caused by severe ice storms. Management plans for urban trees should incorporate information on the ice storm susceptibility of trees in order to: limit potential ice damage; to reduce hazards resulting from ice damage; and to restore urban tree populations following ice storms. Susceptibility ratings of species commonly planted in urban areas are presented in this publication for use in developing and maintaining healthy urban tree populations.

Ice storm frequency and severity within the eastern United States necessitates the incorporation of ice storm information into the urban forestry planning process. While we cannot stop ice storms from occurring, we can take steps to reduce the impact of this major forest disturbance on urban forests and the interface between forests, buildings, and infrastructure.