U.S. Department of Commerce


Date of this Version



Published for Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.


Recovery plans identify reasonable actions which are believed to be required to recover and/or protect endangered species. Plans are prepared by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and sometimes with the assistance of recovery teams, contractors, State agencies, and others. This plan was prepared by Randall R. Reeves, Phillip J. Clapham, Robert L. Brownell, Jr., and Gregory K. Silber for NMFS. Recovery plans do not necessarily represent the views nor the official positions or approvals of any individuals or agencies, other than those of NMFS, and they represent the views of NMFS only after they have been approved by the Assistant Administrator for Fisheries. Objectives will only be attained and funds expended contingent upon appropriations, priorities, and other budgetary constraints. Approved recovery plans are subject to modification as dictated by new findings, changes in species status, and the completion of recovery tasks described in the plan.