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Poplars consist of all species of the genus Populus, including cottonwoods, aspens, and the many interspecies hybrids in common use (Dickmann and Stuart 1983). Our working group focused on the fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, and weed competitors of Populus in the United States. However, bacterial and viral diseases of Populus are significant in Europe, and genetic engineering approaches toward their control or management are being studied. The key aspects of poplar biology important to understanding the use of pest resistance genes are described below.