U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Date of this Version



Published in Analytica Chimica Acta 596 (2007) 37–45. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2007.06.006


Lissamine Green B (LGB) was carefully selected as a potential candidate for the development of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method that is intended for use at water utilities to determine chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in drinking water. Chlorine dioxide reacts with LGB in aqueous solution to decrease the absorbance of LGB in direct proportion to the ClO2 concentration. LGB was confirmed to have adequate sensitivity, and to suffer less interference than other dyes reported in the literature. The stoichiometry for the reaction between LGB and ClO2 was found not to be 1:1 and is dependent on the LGB concentration. This required calibration of each LGB stock solution and prompted the investigation of alternate means of calibration, which utilized a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed conversion of chlorite ion (ClO2 −) to ClO2. This approach allowed the simultaneous determination of ClO2 − concentration, which is also required each day at water plants that use ClO2. Studies were conducted to characterize and carefully optimize the HRP-conversion of ClO2 − to ClO2 in order to yield reaction conditions that could be accomplished in less than 30 min at modest cost, yet meet EPA’s sensitivity and robustness requirements for routine monitoring. An assessment of method detection limit, linearity and slope (or sensitivity), precision, and accuracy in finished drinking water matrices indicated that this approach was suitable for publication as EPA Method 327.0.