U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Date of this Version



American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 35, Issue 1, 1 January 1942, Pages 142–151


U.S. government work


The viviparous top minnow, Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird and Girard), has for many years been considered an important predator of the immature stages of mosquitoes. Various field workers have reported on the value of this species in controlling both anopheline and culicine mosquitoes, but few detailed studies have been made. Probably the most detailed of these has been that of Hildebrand (1925). His investigations were made during the summers of 1921-24 in the vicinity of Augusta, Ga., with the subspecies G. affinis holbrooki. Employing the common dipper method, he compared the densities of anopheline and culicine larvae and pupae in waters containing Gambusia with those from which Gambusia had been removed. The areas containing Gambusia invariably contained fewer mosquitoes than the fishless waters, although in no instance did complete control result from their presence. The total reduction of culicines was 80.8 per cent, and of anophelines 57.8 per cent. For both anophelines and culicines, the per cent reduction of pupae was greater than for larvae, being 74.2 per cent for anophelines and 85.5 per cent for culicines.