U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Date of this Version



December 1993


This Appendix is intended to accompany the Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook (hereafter referred to as the Handbook) and should be used only by individuals familiar with the Handbook. The species-specific values for the exposure factors presented in Chapter 2 of the Handbook of are a subset of the data included in the tables of this Appendix. Most values identified in the literature reviewed for the Handbook are included in this Appendix. For some exposure factors for some species, large quantities of data are available. For these factors and species, we tried to select data that represented a range of values and geographic locations for the Appendix, and did not include the other reviewed data. All data obtained from secondary sources are so identified in the "Notes" column of the tables. Appropriate data identified in primary sources were included in the Appendix unless the results were inadequately reported (e.g., no methods, units of measure unclear). The references for this Appendix are in Chapter 2 of the Handbook.
We caution users of this Appendix that some values or studies included may be inaccurate. We have not attempted to evaluate the quality of the original studies and associated data. When potential difficulties were obvious (e.g., method of estimating home range not reported), we have tried to indicate the limitation in the "Notes" column. Also in the notes column, we have tried to identify potential confounding factors (e.g., low reproductive success due to DDT or other pollutant). Due to resource limitations, our quality-assurance program consisted of reviewing all data for consistency with other reported values, reviewing any unusual values against the original reference, and verifying values that were included in Chapter 2 of the Handbook. Many of the data presented in the Appendix required conversion to metric units (e.g., density reported as N/acre to density as N/hectare), and we have not verified that all such conversions were performed correctly for the Appendix. For several factor values, we computed a mean and standard deviation (SD) from original data provided in the reference (e.g., mean ± SD of 10 density values representing 10 different years of study in the same location). Again, we have only verified a subset of these data as part of our quality assurance procedures. Users of this Handbook therefore are strongly encouraged to retrieve the original literature for any studies that are important to their exposure assessment. We would welcome being informed of any possible inaccuracies in the Handbook and this Appendix at the following address:
Exposure Assessment Group
Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook Project
USEPA (8603)
401 M St., SW
Washington, DC 20460
The remainder of Section A-2 describes the column headers and abbreviations used in the Appendix. The exposure factor tables are provided for birds in Section A-3, for mammals in Section A-4, and for reptiles and amphibians in Section A-5. Again, the references for the citations in the Appendix are in Chapter 2 of the Handbook at the end of each individual species profile.