U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Date of this Version



December 1993


The Exposure Assessment Group of the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) has prepared the Wildlife Exposure Handbook in support of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the Office of Water. The Handbook provides information on various factors used to assess exposure to wildlife. The goals of the project are (1) to promote the application of risk assessment methods to wildlife species, (2) to foster a consistent approach to wildlife exposure and risk assessments, and (3) to increase the accessibility of the literature applicable to these assessments.
The bulk of the document summarizes literature values for exposure factors for 34 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. In addition, we include a chapter on allometric equations that can be used to estimate some of the exposure factors when data are lacking. Finally, we describe some common equations used to estimate exposure. The basic literature search was completed in May 1990 and was supplemented by targeted searches conducted in 1992.