Virology, Nebraska Center for


Date of this Version



AIDS Behav. 2011 November ; 15(8): 1895–1901.


© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011


Zambia has substantially been affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic with prevalence rates at 14% in a population estimated at 12 million. Yet, the extent of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in this population remains to be clearly understood. A series of culturally appropriate neuropsychological (NP) assessments [International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Color Trails Test 1 and 2, Grooved pegboard Test, and Time Gait Test] were used to test the effects of HIV on NP performance of HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Twenty-two percent HIV positive individuals ARV naïve met the criteria for IHDS-defined NP impairment. Gender significantly influenced the performance on NP tests with females performing more poorly compared to males. Larger studies that will accommodate gender differences and age are necessary to generate appropriate norms in Zambia in order to better assess the prevalence of HAND in the developing country setting.