Virology, Nebraska Center for



Document Type


Date of this Version



2019 by the author.


Vaccines 2019, 7, 144; doi:10.3390/vaccines7040144


Recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd) has been used as a vaccine platform against many infectious diseases and has been shown to be an effective vaccine vector. The dose of the vaccine varies significantly from study to study, making it very diffcult to compare immune responses and vaccine effcacy. This study determined the immune correlates induced by serial dilutions of rAd vaccines delivered intramuscularly (IM) and intranasally (IN) to mice and rats. When immunized IM, mice had substantially higher antibody responses at the higher vaccine doses, whereas, the IN immunized mice showed a lower response to the higher rAd vaccine doses. Rats did not show dose-dependent antibody responses to increasing vaccine doses. The IM immunized mice and rats also showed significant dose-dependent T cell responses to the rAd vaccine. However, the T cell immunity plateaued in both mice and rats at 109 and 1010 vp/animal, respectively. Additionally, the highest dose of vaccine in mice and rats did not improve the T cell responses. A final vaccine analysis using a lethal influenza virus challenge showed that despite the differences in the immune responses observed in the mice, the mice had very similar patterns of protection. This indicates that rAd vaccines induced dose-dependent immune responses, especially in IM immunized animals, and that immune correlates are not as predictive of protection as initially thought.