Virology, Nebraska Center for



Date of this Version



Viruses 2020, 12, 1186; doi:10.3390/v12101186


2020 by the authors.


On average, there are 3–5 million severe cases of influenza virus infections globally each year. Seasonal influenza vaccines provide limited protection against divergent influenza strains. Therefore, the development of a universal influenza vaccine is a top priority for the NIH. Here, we report a comprehensive summary of all universal influenza vaccines that were tested in clinical trials during the 2010–2019 decade. Of the 1597 studies found, 69 eligible clinical trials, which investigated 27 vaccines, were included in this review. Information from each trial was compiled for vaccine target, vaccine platform, adjuvant inclusion, clinical trial phase, and results. As we look forward, there are currently three vaccines in phase III clinical trials which could provide significant improvement over seasonal influenza vaccines. This systematic review of universal influenza vaccine clinical trials during the 2010–2019 decade provides an update on the progress towards an improved influenza vaccine.