Virology, Nebraska Center for


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Teklemariam, A.D.; Alharbi, M.G.; Al-Hindi, R.R.; Alotibi, I.; Aljaddawi, A.A.; Azhari, S.A.; Esmael, A. Isolation and Characterization of Chi-like Salmonella Bacteriophages Infecting Two Salmonella enterica Serovars, Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Pathogens 2022, 11, 1480. https://


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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis are well-known pathogens that cause foodborne diseases in humans. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serovars has caused serious public health problems worldwide. In this study, two lysogenic phages, STP11 and SEP13, were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Jeddah, KSA. Transmission electron microscopic images revealed that both phages are new members of the genus “Chivirus” within the family Siphoviridae. Both STP11 and SEP13 had a lysis time of 90 min with burst sizes of 176 and 170 PFU/cell, respectively. The two phages were thermostable (0 C ≤ temperature < 70 C) and pH tolerant at 3 ≤ pH < 11. STP11 showed lytic activity for approximately 42.8% (n = 6), while SEP13 showed against 35.7% (n = 5) of the tested bacterial strains. STP11 and STP13 have linear dsDNA genomes consisting of 58,890 bp and 58,893 bp nucleotide sequences with G + C contents of 57% and 56.5%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the genomes of phages STP11 and SEP13 contained 70 and 71 ORFs, respectively. No gene encoding tRNA was detected in their genome. Of the 70 putative ORFs of phage STP11, 27 (38.6%) were assigned to functional genes and 43 (61.4%) were annotated as hypothetical proteins. Similarly, 29 (40.8%) of the 71 putative ORFs of phage SEP13 were annotated as functional genes, whereas the remaining 42 (59.2%) were assigned as nonfunctional proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequence demonstrated that the isolated phages are closely related to Chi-like Salmonella viruses.