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Sheeppox virus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. Members of this genus, which also include goatpox and lumpy skin disease viruses, cause economically significant disease in sheep, goats, and cattle. A rapid diagnostic assay for CaPV would be useful for disease surveillance as well as for detection of CaPV in clinical samples and for outbreak management. Here we describe a fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) PCR assay designed for rapid detection of CaPV and tested on sheep experimentally infected with a virulent strain of SPPV. This assay can detect SPPV in buffy coats, nasal swabs, oral swabs, scabs, and skin lesions as well as in lung and lymph nodes collected at necropsy. This single-tube diagnostic assay can be performed in 2 h or less and can detect viral DNA in preclinical, clinical, and postmortem samples.