Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

March 1977


Published in Proceedings of the First Eastern Pine and Meadow Vole Symposium, Winchester, WV, March 10-11, 1977, Ross E. Byers, editor. Copyright © 1977 Pearson.


Accurate estimates of financial losses caused by pine voles in apple orchards is essential in order to obtain reliable cost figures for use in evaluations of various control methods. Most pine vole damage occurs below ground and any attempt to evaluate the severity of the damage in relation to the loss in productivity of the tree proves very difficult. For this reason estimates of vole damage are usually only in terms of annual tree losses. However, damage to the trunk and roots caused by pine voles affect the vigor, yield, fruit quality and ultimately the market value of the crop. Therefore, information concerning these factors is essential to any attempt at pine vole damage appraisal.