Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

February 1980


Published in Proceedings of the Fourth Eastern Pine and Meadow Vole Symposium, Hendersonville, NC, February 21-22, 1980, Ross E. Byers, editor. Copyright © 1980 Sullivan, Jr., Sutton, and Hayne.


In a randomly selected sample of 47 orchard blocks in Henderson County, North Carolina, over two years, the average annual mortality rate for apple trees was 1.0 percent with probably a little less than half of this caused by voles.