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This paper will outline some of the research related to pine and meadow vole damage control which is currently underway at the Winchester Fruit Research Laboratory and outline some of the areas which we will be pursuing in the future. One question which must be answered whenever a chemical is used to control a pest organism is how that chemical is impacting non-target organisms. A study was initiated in the fall of 1979, with the objective of determining by use of radiotelemetry the fates of birds of prey in the vicinity of orchards treated with Brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide. A further objective was to Indirectly assess secondary hazard to birds of prey and scavengers by collecting live voles and vole carcasses after treatment for analysis for anticoagulant residue.