Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

March 1981


Published in Proceedings of the Fifth Eastern Pine and Meadow Vole Symposium, Gettysburg, PA, March 4–5, 1981, Ross E. Byers, editor. Copyright © 1981 FitzGerald and Madison.


Free-ranging pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were radio-tracked in a maintained orchard environment from August to November 1980. Pine voles existed in discrete non-overlapping family units with an average of 6.5 individuals per family unit. Home ranges of family members overlapped extensively, and all the members of a single family unit utilized one or two communal nest sites within the family's territory. Males ranged slightly farther than females, and females spent more time in the nest than did males. The mating system appeared to be promiscuous with a high degree of social tolerance among pregnant and lactating females and scrotal males of the same family group.