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The Botta's or Valley pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae), except possibly for the California ground squirrel, is the most damaging rodent to agricultural crops, ornamental plantings, turf, alfalfa, etc., in California. It is a solitary, antisocial animal that occupies its underground burrow system alone t during mating periods and before the juveniles leave the maternal nest at about 5 to 6 weeks of They disperse nocturnally to establish new tunnel systems or take over abandoned ones. In planted and irrigated areas where there is an abundant supply of desirable vegetation, there are two litters per year. Research indicates that only a few females reproduce the same year are born. The main breeding season in the central California coast area is in December and January. Litters of five to six follow in 30 days.