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Rattus norvegicus, R. exulans, and R. rattus cause extensive damage to Hawaiian sugarcane. This paper gives an overview of the problem and briefly summarizes the history of rodent control on Hawaiian sugarcane plantations. Current baiting practices with zinc phosphide may favor the proliferation of R. norvegicus, and more effective control methods are needed for this species. A cooperative research and development program by the Denver Wildlife Research Center and the nonprofit Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association is described.