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Traditional protective measures to keep wildlife away from areas include exclusion by use of netting, hazing, and chemical repellents. The primary problem with most hazing systems is that wildlife quickly habituate to the devices if their use falls into a predictable pattern. Repellent substances cause wildlife species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable resources by creating a disincentive to visit a specific area or consume a particular resource. Chemical repellents, both lethal and non-lethal, are typically used for agricultural and horticultural purposes, but in addition may provide a strategy to deter wildlife in other contexts. Aerosol delivery of chemical repellents might work to effectively target birds in the air prior to landing in a hazardous area (i.e., a toxic waste water impoundment). In theory, aerosol delivery of a known avian irritant could be used as an ancillary tool in bird hazing systems, to complement more traditional auditory and visual scare tactics.