Wildlife Disease and Zoonotics


Date of this Version

Spring 5-2013


Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Judy E. Akkina, Emi K. Saito. (2013). Assessment of introduction pathway for novel avian influenza virus into North America by wild birds. USDA:APHIS:VS: Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health. Fort Collins, CO. May 2013. 46 pages. (Document #207.0513_AIPathwayAssessment_051513)


Published by USDA APHIS Veterinary Services, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, May 2013


A critical question surrounding emergence of novel strains of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is the ability for wild migratory birds to translocate a complete (unreassorted whole genome) AIV intercontinentally. Virus translocation via migratory birds is suspected in outbreaks of highly pathogenic strain A(H5N1) in Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, the potential intercontinental translocation of newly emerging AIV (e.g. A(H7N9) from Eurasia to North America via migratory movements of birds) remains a concern. An estimated 1.48 to 2.91 million aquatic birds, principally Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) move annually between Eurasia and North America. AIV prevalence in Alaskan waterfowl populations shared between Eurasia and North America has been reported to range from