Animal Science Department


Date of this Version



Published in J. Anim. Sci. 2007. 85:2631–2638. Copyright ©2007 American Society of Animal Science. Used by permission.


The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P &#;&#;0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P &#;&#;0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group &#;&#;muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P &#;&#;0.01), whereas muscles from the BNF group were the least tender (P &#;&#;0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P &#;&#;0.20) among cull cow carcass groups and more intense (P &#;&#;0.01) than the SEL carcass group. Muscles from the SEL group exhibited less (P &#;&#;0.01) detectable off-flavor than the cull cow carcass groups, whereas the B-NF group exhibited the most (P &#;&#;0.01) detectable off-flavor. Although carcass and muscle quality from commercially identified, fed, cull beef and dairy cows was not similar to Amaturity, USDA Select beef, they did show improvements when compared with nonfed, cull, beef and dairy cow carcasses and muscles.