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Successful introduction of replacement gilts and boars into the breeding herd is an important aspect of breeding herd efficiency. To attain herd efficiency, females must ovulate adequate numbers of viable ova, express estrus, show willingness to mate, and conceive in a regular manner. Males must produce adequate numbers of fertile spermatozoa, possess ability and show willingness to mate, and produce high-conception rates. If these qualities are properly developed, pregnancy rate and litter size will be maximized.