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Costs and returns of June and March calving systems were compared at four production phases. Financial costs of the June system were lowest, due primarily to lower costs of producing a weaned calf. Post-weaning financial and economic costs at each phase were nearly identical. Selling June-born steer calves at January weaning would double net returns compared to selling March-born steer calves at October weaning due to lower costs and higher market prices. Net returns for June-born steer calves retained beyond weaning are highest if calves are retained as yearlings and finished. Calves finished as calf-feds provided the highest net returns for the March calving system.