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The purpose of beef cattle and beef product research at UNL is to provide reference information that represents the various populations (cows, calves, heifers, feeders, carcasses, retail products, etc.) of beef production. Obviously, the researcher cannot apply treatments to every member of a population; therefore, he or she must sample the population. The use of statistics allows the researcher and readers of the Nebraska Beef Report the opportunity to evaluate separation of random (chance) occurrences and real biological effects of a treatment. Following is a brief description of the major statistics used in the beef report. For a more detailed description of the expectations of authors and parameters used in animal science, see Journal of Animal Science Style and Form (beginning pp. 339) at: http://jas.fass.org/misc/ifora.shtml.