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Heifers and cows that were culled from the herd due to failure to become pregnant were categorized into groups with low (< 2 year), moderate (>2 and < 6 year) or high (≥ 6 year) fertility. Antral follicle counts were numerically lower in the low group and increased in the moderate- and high-fertility group. Granulosa cells from dominant follicles in moderate- and high-fertility cows had a greater ratio of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 164 (VEGF164) to VEGF164B compared to the low-fertility cows. Furthermore, there was more CARTPT in granulosa cells from subordinate follicles in moderate- and high-fertility cows than low. Gene expression is altered in granulosa cells from cows differing in fertility, suggesting these are candidate genes that may be used as markers to assist in determining reproductive longevity in beef cows.