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The insecticidal protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis has been shown to be a major component of the spore coat. We have developed a novel surface display system using B. thuringiensis spores in which the N-terminal portion of the protoxin is replaced with a heterologous protein. The expression vector with a sporulationspecific promoter was successfully used to display green fluorescent protein and a single-chain antibody (scFv) gene that encodes anti-4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (anti-phOx) antibody. The spores that carry the anti-phOx antibody can bind to phOx specifically.