Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



Published in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57:21 (2009), pp. 10435–10441; doi: 10.1021/jf902136p Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society. Used by permission.


Antiproliferative properties of lipids extracted from grain sorghum (GS) dry distiller’s grain (DDG) were analyzed to determine the feasibility of developing GS coproducts as a source for human health dietary ingredients. The lipid extract of GSDDG was delivered to human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells by solubilizing 0−1000 μg/mL of GS-DDG lipids in 100 μg/mL increments with micelles. A significant reduction in cell viability (25−50%) resulted at treatment levels of 400−1000 μg/mL GS-DDG lipids (p < 0.05). Alternatively, total protein levels of cells treated with 400, 500, and 600 μg/mL of GS-DDG lipid were not significantly different from the control, indicating cell growth during the treatment period. Total cell counts for the control were not significantly different from the GS-DDG lipid treated cells, but dead cell counts increased by 10% for the latter sample with a concomitant increase of the intercellular protein lactate dehydrogenase leakage (30−40%) in the medium. Preliminary analysis by the fluorescence-activated cell method (FACs) demonstrated that nonviable cells were in either the early apoptotic, late apoptotic, or necrotic stage post-treatment with 400, 500, and 600 μg/mL GS-DDG lipids. Physiochemical characterization of the GS-DDG lipids used for the antiproliferation study showed the presence of vitamin E (predominantly γ-tocopherol), triacylglycerides (predominantly linoleic acid), policosanols, aldehydes, and sterols (predominantly campesterol and stigmasterol), each of which or as synergistic/additive group of constituents may be responsible for the antiproliferative effect.