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A growing recognition of humans as intrinsic parts of ecosystems implies that consideration of human activities and needs is as essential to successful conservation planning, as consideration of other species. Carlson and Maffi organize this volume of papers, given at the Sixteenth International Botanical Congress in 1999, into three sections. Part one focuses on indigenous knowledge and the creation/conservation of biodiversity in the Amazon Basin. Part two examines knowledge and sustainable use of plant resources in the Amazon Basin, sub-Saharan Africa, and Northern Vietnam. The book finishes with a section concerning ethical issues surrounding ethnobiological research and its dissemination – all too important in today’s global culture.