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One of the basic principles of research and of education in general is that challenges propel new learning. This final section raises two fundamental challenges for one of the most frequent sites of undergraduate research: honors programs and colleges. The way each institution responds to these challenges can affect the direction and future of undergraduate research. Anthony Pittman explores perceptions held by African American students about the recruitment practices and climate of honors programs and colleges. The challenge of welcoming a diverse student population pervades higher education and has implications for research programs both inside and outside honors education. Cheryl Achterberg challenges educators as role models for undergraduate research to employ the tools of "theory-driven research and practice." Just as students are encouraged to engage in "systematic, comprehensive, and organized" research processes, Achterberg challenges honors educators to "play a pivotal and powerful role" through a commitment to theory-driven research. The open-ended nature of the "Next Challenges" section balances the momentum of the opening section of the volume and points the way beyond what we know and do well toward those areas that seem to invite creative, intergenerational research teams, possibly the research teams of the future.