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A new species of a philometrid nematode, Margolisianum bulbosum, is described from the subcutaneous tissue in the mouth (larvigerous females), head (males, ovigerous, and larvigerous females), and eye (preovigerous females) of the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, from Mississippi Sound. It is placed in a new genus diagnosed by the combination of 8 large, paired but separate cephalic papillae; no inner cephalic papillae; an esophagus with a separate, muscular anterior bulb; a prominent mononuclear esophageal gland; and variable, irregularly distributed cuticular bosses in the females, as well as a vestigial rectum, particularly in larvigerous females. Some female specimens exhibit rows of lateral grooves and longitudinal ridges near the posterior end. Males have two small slightly subequal spicules, a barbed gubernaculum, 4 pairs of small cephalic papillae, and a bipartite hypodermal extension within a membranous cuticle on the posterior end. Males, ovigerous females, and larvigerous females appear to be present year round in this sporadic infection in Mississippi.