Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version



Published in Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(3):874–877; 2006.


I compared 101 wolf (Canis lupus) pack territories formed in Wisconsin during 1993–2004 to the logistic regression predictive model of Mladenoff et al. (1995, 1997, 1999). Of these, 60% were located in putative habitat suitabilities <50%, including 22% in suitabilities of 0–9%. About a third of the area with putative suitabilities >50% remained unoccupied by known packs after 24 years of recolonization. This model was a poor predictor of wolf re-colonizing locations in Wisconsin, apparently because it failed to consider the adaptability of wolves. Such models should be used cautiously in wolf-management or restoration plans.