Date of this Version
Genetica (2011) 139: 411–429. DOI: 10.1007/s10709-011-9556-2.
Knowledge of genetic diversity, population structure, and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target association mapping populations is of great importance and is a prerequisite for LD-based mapping. In the present study, 96 genotypes comprising 92 accessions of the US peanut minicore collection, a component line of the tetraploid variety Florunner, diploid progenitors A. duranensis (AA) and A. ipaënsis (BB), and synthetic amphidiploid accession TxAG-6 were investigated with 392 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker bands amplified using 32 highly-polymorphic SSR primer pairs. Both distance- and model-based (Bayesian) cluster analysis revealed the presence of structured diversity. In general, the wild-species accessions and the synthetic amphidiploid grouped separately from most minicore accessions except for COC155, and were eliminated from most subsequent analyses. UPGMA analysis divided the population into four subgroups, two major subgroups representing subspecies fastigiata and hypogaea, a third group containing individuals from each subspecies or possibly of mixed ancestry, and a fourth group, either consisting of COC155 alone if wild species were excluded, or of COC155, the diploid species, and the synthetic amphidiploid. Modelbased clustering identified four subgroups- one each for fastigiata and hypogaea subspecies, a third consisting of individuals of both subspecies or of mixed ancestry predominantly from Africa or Asia, and a fourth group, consisting of individuals predominantly of var fastigiata, peruviana, and aequatoriana accessions from South America, including COC155. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed statistically-significant (P < 0.0001) genetic variance of 16.87% among subgroups. A total of 4.85% of SSR marker pairs revealed significant LD (at r2 ≥ 0.1). Of the syntenic marker pairs separated by distances < 10 cM, 11–20 cM, 21–50 cM, and > 50 cM, 19.33, 5.19, 6.25 and 5.29% of marker pairs were found in strong LD (P ≤ 0.01), in accord with LD extending to great distances in self pollinated crops. A threshold value of r2 > 0.035 was found to distinguish mean r2 values of linkage distance groups statistically from the mean r2 values of unlinked markers; LD was found to extend to 10 cM over the entire minicore collection by this criterion. However, there were large differences in r2 values among marker pairs even among tightly-linked markers. The implications of these findings with regard to the possibility of using association mapping for detection of genome-wide SSR marker-phenotype association are discussed.