Agronomy and Horticulture Department



James C. Schnable

Date of this Version



Nucleic Acids Research, 2017, Vol. 45, No. 21 e178 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx853.


Copyright the Author(s) 2017. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.


Conventional genotyping-by-sequencing (cGBS) strategies suffer from high rates of missing data and genotyping errors, particularly at heterozygous sites. tGBS® genotyping-by-sequencing is a novel method of genome reduction that employs two restriction enzymes to generate overhangs in opposite orientations to which (single-strand) oligos rather than (double-stranded) adaptors are ligated. This strategy ensures that only doubledigested fragments are amplified and sequenced. The use of oligos avoids the necessity of preparing adaptors and the problems associated with inter-adaptor annealing/ligation. Hence, the tGBS protocol simplifies the preparation of high-quality GBS sequencing libraries. During polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, selective nucleotides included at the 3'-end of the PCR primers result in additional genome reduction as compared to cGBS. By adjusting the number of selective bases, different numbers of genomic sites are targeted for sequencing. Therefore, for equivalent amounts of sequencing, more reads per site are available for SNP calling. Hence, as compared to cGBS, tGBS delivers higher SNP calling accuracy (>97–99%), even at heterozygous sites, less missing data per marker across a population of samples, and an enhanced ability to genotype rare alleles. tGBS is particularly well suited for genomic selection, which often requires the ability to genotype populations of individuals that are heterozygous at many loci.