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Prostaglandins are arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. PGF2α analogues are therapeutically used for regulating mammalian reproductive cycles and blood pressure, inducing term labor, and treating ocular disorders. PGF2α exerts effects via activation of calcium and PKC signaling, however, little is known about the cellular events imposed by PGF2α signaling. Here, we explored the early effects of PGF2α on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in the bovine corpus luteum employing relevant and well characterized in vivo and in vitro approaches. We identified PKC/ERK and AMPK as critical protein kinases essential for activation of mitochondrial fission proteins, DRP1 and MFF. Furthermore, we report that PGF2α elicits increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and promotes receptormediated activation of PINK–Parkin mitophagy. These findings place the mitochondrium as a novel target in response to luteolytic mediator, PGF2α. Understanding intracellular processes occurring during early luteolysis may serve as a target for improving fertility.